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Evolving gene responsible for alcohol digestion may stop Humans from drinking alcohol

A new study by University of Pennsylvania researchers investigating recent signals of positive selection of genes across human populations reveals the concurrent emergence of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene variant in various populations across the globe without direct genetic heritage. The study has been published in the journal Nature, Ecology & Evolution utilized the 1000 Genome Project data and analyzed 2500 individuals from 20  populations across four continents.

ADH is a group of enzymes normally present in humans to break down the alcohol. But the emergent gene variant of the ADH increases enzyme activity resulting into the less effective breaking down of the alcohol consequently, leading to adverse physical response to alcohol consumption.

People with this specific genetic variant may feel sick after drinking alcohol and henceforth, are unlikely to develop a taste for alcohol or become alcoholic.

 

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New Study found Promising Compounds to cure Whipworm infection

Good news is here for around 500 million people of mostly developing countries who gets infected with the human whipworm, a potent physical and mental growth damager, now they can be hopeful for effective treatment in coming days as a new finding shows that the whipworm is killed at egg and adult stage by a new drug developed by the team from the three UK universities, Oxford, Manchester and University College London.

Currently there are no vaccines available for human whipworm and treatments are based on ages old drugs having low success rate. The team of researchers studies a class of dihydrobenzoxazepinonesm, which had never been related to regulating whipworms, found the compounds a more effective killer of the adult stages of whipworm than present drugs. Not only that, even whipworm eggs are also affected which are contagious and passed from infected faeces into healthy people by hand to mouth contact, quite often in areas where people live close together or areas with unsanitary toilets.

Generally, the whipworm eggs are highly resistant to UV radiation, extreme temperature changes and may remain viable for longer, however the newly studied compounds which are effective against the eggs could be used as a spray to stop whipworm infection at source itself.

Source:

Frederick A. Partridge, Emma A. Murphy, Nicky J. Willis, Carole J. R. Bataille, Ruth Forman, Narinder Heyer-Chauhan, Bruno Marinič, Daniel J. C. Sowood, Graham M. Wynne, Kathryn J. Else, Angela J. Russell, David B. Sattelle. Dihydrobenz[e][1,4] oxazepin-2(3H)-ones, a new anthelmintic chemotype immobilising whipworm and reducing infectivity in vivoPLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2017; 11 (2): e0005359 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005359

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/02/170222102540.htm

 

Unhealthy Food Cravings are a Sign that Your Body Lacks Minerals!

Next time if you feel intense craving for something supposedly unhealthy like donuts, chocolate, refined carbs or salty snacks, don’t happily eat them since these foods are not going to stop your craving. Surprised to know this fact? Well, the post appeared on TMJ Aid says that Science has found such cravings are a sign that your body is deficient of minerals which may be found in unhealthy foods. However, only minerals from natural sources optimized for great absorption may finally end such cravings, therefore it’s suggested to go for whole foods to stop your cravings as they are much better option.

Source: http://tmjaid.com/unhealthy-food-cravings-are-a-sign-of-mineral-deficiencies/

Take Vitamin D regularly to keep away from Respiratory Diseases

vit-d-images

Next time if you suffer with acute respiratory infections, don’t ignore your Vitamin D status which plays a significantly effective role in prevention from respiratory diseases, claimed by a new research paper published online in journal the BMJ. The study confirms that daily or weekly vitamin D supplements had the utmost advantage for individuals with the maximum noteworthy vitamin D deficiency.

Generally, people comprehend that vitamin D is critical for bone and muscle health but this new research found that it also helps the body fight acute respiratory infection, which is accountable for millions of deaths globally each year. The new research is a global collaborative study comprising a participant data meta-analysis of 25 randomized controlled trials including >11,000 participants.

Many observational studies have already established the association of low vitamin D levels with greater vulnerability to acute respiratory infections, based on long time follow up of participants without providing a specific treatment. There have been discrepancies in clinical trials conducted to investigate the protective ability of vitamin D supplementation.

The new study resolves these inconsistencies and the researchers found that daily or weekly supplementation had the greatest benefit for individuals with the utmost substantial vitamin D deficiency (

Source: Adrian R Martineau, et al., “Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data,” BMJ 2017; 356 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i6583

MERS could be curable..Antibody against MERS found by Scientists

MERSinfographic

A team of Scientists have recognized a protein that worn out the MERS virus, giving the hope for a potential relief to prevent and treat the incurable disease, according to a report published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on 27th July. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is an exceptionally lethal pulmonary infection instigated by a formerly unidentified coronavirus (CoV), possibly passed on to humans by infected camels. There is no licensed vaccine or antiviral available so far to treat MERS, which causes symptoms such as fever, cough and shortness of breath. The team isolated a potent MERS-CoV-neutralizing antibody, named LCA60, from memory B cells of an infected patient. LCA60 antibody binds to a novel site on the spike protein and effectively nullifies infection of MERS by meddling with the binding to the cellular receptor CD26. Scientists claim that LCA60 antibody can efficiently be used for prophylaxis, for postexposure prophylaxis of individuals at risk, or for the treatment of human cases of MERS infection. Notably, LCA60, when given to infected mice, dramatically reduced the amount of the MERS virus in the lungs within days. Even in the worst-case scenario, only one virus remained after three days for every 100 viruses at the start of the treatment. In most cases, the virus became untraceable within five days of treatment. The antibody fought the virus whether it was given a day before or a day after the mice were infected. Current MERS outbreak in China and South Korea has caused 186 infections and 36 deaths as of 28th July WHO report.

See in details;

D. Corti et al. Prophylactic and postexposure efficacy of a potent human monoclonal antibody against MERS coronavirus. PNAS. Published online July 27, 2015. doi: 10.1073/pnas.151019912

Autism could be detected by smell test

Doctors may sniff out autism with a 1o minute test, says a new study.

sniff test

According to researchers report of July 2 in Current Biology, children with autism inhale almost same amount of air whether smelling sour milk or roses whereas, kids without the disorder breathe in pleasant scents more deeply than stinky ones.

The findings hint that a whiff-and-sniff test could one day offer a quick and easy way to determine whether a child has autism. But the study was small, and other researchers are not convinced.

source

Pain Sensing’ Gene Discovered – Could Lead to Development of New Pain Treatments

Cambridge, UK (Scicasts) — A gene essential to the production of pain-sensing neurons in humans has been identified by an international team of researchers co-led by the University of Cambridge.

The discovery, reported May 25 in the journal Nature Genetics, could have implications for the development of new methods of pain relief.

Pain perception is an evolutionarily-conserved warning mechanism that alerts us to dangers in the environment and to potential tissue damage. However, rare individuals – around one in a million people in the UK – are born unable to feel pain. These people accumulate numerous self-inflicted injuries, often leading to reduced lifespan.

Using detailed genome mapping, two teams of researchers collaborated to analyse the genetic make-up of 11 families across Europe and Asia affected by an inherited condition known as congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP). This enabled them to pinpoint the cause of the condition to variants of the gene PRDM12. Family members affected by CIP carried two copies of the variant; however, if they had only inherited one copy from their parents, they were unaffected.

The team looked at nerve biopsies taken from the patients to see what had gone wrong and found that particular pain-sensing neurons were absent. From these clinical features of the disease, the team predicted that there would be a block to the production of pain-sensing neurons during the development of the embryo – they confirmed this using a combination of studies in mouse and frog models, and in human induced pluripotent stem cells (skin cells that had been reset to their ‘master state’, which enables them to develop into almost any type of cell in the body).

PRDM12 had previously been implicated in the modification of chromatin, a small molecule that attaches to our DNA and acts like a switch to turn genes on and off (an effect known as epigenetics). The researchers showed that all the genetic variants of PRDM12 in the CIP patients blocked the gene’s function. As chromatin is particularly important during formation of particular specialised cell types such as neurons, this provides a possible explanation for why pain-sensing neurons do not form properly in the CIP patients.

“The ability to sense pain is essential to our self-preservation, yet we understand far more about excessive pain than we do about lack of pain perception,” says Professor Geoff Woods from the Cambridge Institute for Medical Research at the University of Cambridge, who co-led the study. “Both are equally important to the development of new pain treatments – if we know the mechanisms that underlie pain sensation, we can then potentially control and reduce unnecessary pain.”

PRDM12 is only the fifth gene related to lack of pain perception to have been identified to date. However, two of the previously-discovered genes have already led to the development of new pain killers that are currently been tested in clinical trials.

“We are very hopeful that this new gene could be an excellent candidate for drug development, particularly given recent successes with drugs targeting chromatin regulators in human disease,” adds Dr. Ya-Chun Chen from the University of Cambridge, the study’s first author. “This could potentially benefit those who are at danger from lack of pain perception and help in the development of new treatments for pain relief.”

Article adapted from a University of Cambridge news release. The original article is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence.

Publication: Transcriptional regulator PRDM12 is essential for human pain perception. Chen, Y-C et al. Nature Genetics; (May 25, 2015)

Source: http://scicasts.com/genomics/2029-functional-genomics/9466-pain-sensing-gene-discovered-could-lead-to-development-new-pain-treatments/?utm_source=newsletter_1849&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=scicasts-on-cancer-research

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