A new study by University of Pennsylvania researchers investigating recent signals of positive selection of genes across human populations reveals the concurrent emergence of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene variant in various populations across the globe without direct genetic heritage. The study has been published in the journal Nature, Ecology & Evolution utilized the 1000 Genome Project data and analyzed 2500 individuals from 20 populations across four continents.
ADH is a group of enzymes normally present in humans to break down the alcohol. But the emergent gene variant of the ADH increases enzyme activity resulting into the less effective breaking down of the alcohol consequently, leading to adverse physical response to alcohol consumption.
People with this specific genetic variant may feel sick after drinking alcohol and henceforth, are unlikely to develop a taste for alcohol or become alcoholic.
Next time if you feel intense craving for something supposedly unhealthy like donuts, chocolate, refined carbs or salty snacks, don’t happily eat them since these foods are not going to stop your craving. Surprised to know this fact? Well, the post appeared on TMJ Aid says that Science has found such cravings are a sign that your body is deficient of minerals which may be found in unhealthy foods. However, only minerals from natural sources optimized for great absorption may finally end such cravings, therefore it’s suggested to go for whole foods to stop your cravings as they are much better option.
Researchers employ a genetically modified bacteria to eliminate tumors in mice.
The report published in February issue of the Science Translational Medicine discloses an immunological mechanism that contributes to bacteria-driven, cancer–killing activity claiming that a genetically altered Salmonella typhimurium a gastroenteritis-causing bacteria, is an effective destroyer of mouse tumors.
The reasoning behind most bacteria-driven cancer therapies is the fact that oxygen-starved and necrotic cores of tumors are attractive environments for anaerobic bacteria such as Salmonella, Clostridium, and Listeria, and an infection can lead to tumor colonization by these bugs. By means of active multiplication, the bacteria can directly kill the cancer cells and also attract the attention of the body’s immune system (which is generally suppressed within tumors), leading to further tumor destruction.
Things are not so easy and there are safety issues in implementation for patients. In a recent trial, researchers found attenuated Salmonella bacteria to be safe, but they were unable to create a strong response. To overcome the issue researchers tried to boost the potency of the Salmonella by engineering the bacteria to overexpress a protein proven to induce a strong immune response—flagellin B. As per the new report, intravenous injections of the flagellin expressing Salmonella eliminated the experimental tumors in 55 percent of mice, which then remained healthy until the end of the four-month observation period. Without overexpression of flagellin, the tumors in the mice tended to regrow after initial shrinking by the Salmonella.
Some scientist agrees that current study extends our understanding of bacterial-based cancer therapy at a molecular level but one of the problems with developing bacterial cancer treatments has been that “these bacteria are almost a black box.” They promote cancer destruction, but no one is exactly sure how.
Source: J.H. Zheng et al., “Two-step enhanced cancer immunotherapy with engineered Salmonella typhimurium secreting heterologous flagellin,” Science Translational Medicine, 9, eaak9537, 2017.
Next time if you suffer with acute respiratory infections, don’t ignore your Vitamin D status which plays a significantly effective role in prevention from respiratory diseases, claimed by a new research paper published online in journal the BMJ. The study confirms that daily or weekly vitamin D supplements had the utmost advantage for individuals with the maximum noteworthy vitamin D deficiency.
Generally, people comprehend that vitamin D is critical for bone and muscle health but this new research found that it also helps the body fight acute respiratory infection, which is accountable for millions of deaths globally each year. The new research is a global collaborative study comprising a participant data meta-analysis of 25 randomized controlled trials including >11,000 participants.
Many observational studies have already established the association of low vitamin D levels with greater vulnerability to acute respiratory infections, based on long time follow up of participants without providing a specific treatment. There have been discrepancies in clinical trials conducted to investigate the protective ability of vitamin D supplementation.
The new study resolves these inconsistencies and the researchers found that daily or weekly supplementation had the greatest benefit for individuals with the utmost substantial vitamin D deficiency (
Source: Adrian R Martineau, et al., “Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data,” BMJ 2017; 356 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i6583
Humans with red-green color blindness, see a different spectrum blame it to the dichromacy (two types of cone cells) rather than trichromacy (three types of cone cells) in normal Humans. Have you ever imagined what would have happened if we had not been blessed with trichromatic vision and how we developed this, thank our fruit-hunting ancestors, claimed by a report shown at the annual meeting of AAAS, which publishes Science.
Few of the primate species (our early ancestors) have three different types of light-sensitive cone cell in eyes (trichromacy) rather than two which makes primate exceptional and allows humans to explore what we think of as the standard spectrum of color. As per the hypothesis, the satandard explanation for trichromacy in primates, is that it allowed them to see colourful ripe fruit more easily against a mostly green background of the forest. The rhesus macaque (a particular Old World monkey), has a genetic discrepancy to offer a convenient natural test of this hypothesis. A common mutation makes some females have three types of cone cells whereas others having two only. Based on a study report including >20000 individual observations of 80 different macaques feeding from 30 species of trees on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, researchers can say with some confidence that wild trichromatic female monkeys do certainly seem to trace and eat fruit quicker than dichromatic females monkeys, leading strong support to the idea that this differentiating advantage of trichromacy over dichromacy helped drive the evolution of trichromacy in Humans and other relatives.